To allow the wine to reach the right serving temperature so that it can express its fragrance to the full.
Technique of partially drying the grapes to obtain wines with a fuller taste and the characteristic aromas of ripe fruit. Almost fully dried grapes are used to make sweet raisin wine with a high alcohol content and abundant sugar.
An operation to increase the alcohol content of must by sweetening or the addition of concentrated grape must.
Literally to accustom the wine to a glass or a wooden barrel before use. This is done by pouring a small quantity of wine into the chosen vessel, swirling it around and then, using it for its intended purpose.
Balloon glass
A glass with a generous, round bowl in which the bouquets can develop properly and the wine can be well oxygenated.
An oak barrel which usually holds 225 litres. It gives the wine a characteristic aroma and allows micro-oxygenation.
Bordeaux barrique
Container made of oak staves which holds 225 litres.
Otherwise known as Mix, it indicates the blending of different wines once fermentation is complete. Wines made from grapes of different origins can be blended as well as from grapes of the same blend.
Botrytis Cinerea
Noble rot that can infect grapes exposed to specific climates. It is used to obtain full-bodied wines with complex aromas.
Bordeaux barrels
Barrels that hold 900 litres, the equivalent of four 225-litre barriques.
Large barrel
Wooden barrel, usually oak, which holds over 1,000 litres.
Rooms set up to preserve wine.
Wine produced in the relevant area with the oldest wine-making tradition.
Topping up
Operation whereby the containers in which the wine is stored are always kept “topped up” to avoid excessive contact of the wine with the air.
French term which indicates a grape production area (vineyard) particularly suited to that type of grape.
A glass or clear crystal glass container use to decant the wine.
Static decantation
Operation whereby the lees are separated from the crushed grapes before alcoholic fermentation begins.
Assessment of the quality of the wine based on the perception of the organoleptic properties of the wine and the sensations that it generates.
Trademark guaranteeing a specific origin of the wine and compliance with specific requirements (regulations).
The separation of the grapes from the stems, usually before pressing. This is sometimes done afterwards.
Production regulation
A set of rules that establish which and how many grape varieties can be used to produce a DOC wine. In which areas and under what conditions the grapes can be cultivated and then, used. The winemaking conditions. The characteristics of the wine from the chemical and physical aspect (acidity, degree of alcohol, etc.) and from the organoleptic aspect. Lastly, for DOCG wines, the regulation also establishes the bottling methods. The regulations are laid down, area by area, by experts from the Ministry of Agriculture.
Wines protected by a specific production regulation. The DOCG regulations include more stringent rules and controls compared to DOC regulations.
Wine shop
Place where wine is sold.
Term that indicates the wine sediment during the production stages.
Alcoholic fermentation
Natural biochemical reaction caused by yeast which mainly transforms the sugar in the grape into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Malolactic fermentation
Natural biochemical reaction caused by bacteria which transform the malic acid, naturally present in young grapes and is responsible for notes such as freshness, into lactic acid which is responsible for more mature notes. Not all wines undergo malolactic fermentation.
Operation to eliminate any particles suspended in the wine.
Appellation that guarantees the geographical origin of a wine and sometimes the blend of grapes.
This is the cultivation practice of transplanting a fragment of another variety onto a vine stock or shoot.
Yeast is a living organism that is naturally present in grape skins. When the grapes are pressed, the yeast comes into contact with the must and quickly reproduces, triggering the alcoholic fermentation which transforms the sugar into alcohol so the must becomes wine.
The technique of making wine which consists of keeping the grape skins in contact with the must during the fermentation stage. This prolongs the extraction of the wine from the must.
Must is obtained by pressing the grapes. Must mainly consists of water (80%), sugar and acids. When pressed, the must comes into contact with the yeast (naturally present in the skins) and starts the alcoholic fermentation which transforms the sugar into alcohol and the must becomes wine.
The term “botrytized” means wines produced using grapes infected by Botrytis Cinerea, the noble rot that concentrates aromas and wine bouquets. Botrytized wines are paired with desserts, aged cheeses and nuts. The recommended serving temperature is 8 - 10°C.
The name of the wine produced with the carbonic maceration technique, released for consumption about 2 months after the harvest.
Preliminary stage of the winemaking process in which the grapes are crushed to obtain the juice that will then be fermented into wine.
Natural substances that influence the colour and taste of the wine. They include flavonols which give colour to white wines, anthocyanins which give colour to red wines, and tannins which are also responsible for colour, as well as the bitter component of red wines.
Organoleptic properties
The qualities of a wine that can be perceived and assessed by our sense organs during tasting. The characteristics include colour, smell and taste.
The term is used for wines with a longer ageing period than normal. It is indicated before the vintage on the bottle.
Chemical substances which stabilise the wine in various ways during the winemaking process. Sulphites are naturally present in all wines but, in most cases, they are also added during production.
Wines produced in full compliance with the production regulation and with a higher alcohol content compared to the corresponding basic wine.
Polyphenolic compounds contained in the skin and seeds (pips) of the grape, as well as in the wood of the barrels, which give the wine its red colour and are responsible for the astringent sensation of its taste.
A broad concept that goes beyond the mere definition of soil and embraces a series of factors which give the vineyard its typical character, including the layout of the soil, exposure to the sun, temperatures, rainfall and climate.
Blend of grapes
It indicates which grapes make up a wine. If a wine is made 100% of the same grape, it is known as a “single varietal blend” while the term “multivarietal blend” is used when different grapes are combined before fermentation and blended together.
The grape skins.
Grape seeds.
The wine production process. In some cases, it is the synonym of fermentation.
Grape variety
It indicates one of the many varieties of grapes. Every variety produces different grapes which differ from one another by the shape of the bunch and leaves, the ripening period and, above all, by the different characteristics of the wines obtained. Many wines are made from different grape varieties.
Area of land on which vines are cultivated.